Bridges types -  Generalities and definitions

                              Bridges classifications
(According to courses from  "Public Works' Special School of Paris" - Teachers : Mr Deloupe et Honoré  1939)
Depending on the point of view of their importance , Bridges are subdivided into:

"Culverts," bridges , viaducts  and aqueducts.

- A"
culvert " is a very small arch bridge   of less 4m of opening, comprising only two supports and usually built on a small ravine, a brook etc.

-A bridge is a work sometimes very important, but having for object the crossing of only one obstacle (river, railway, road...)

They can be classified in the following way:
- Fixed bridges, allowing a continuous circulation.
- The moving bridges (swinging or travelling or lifting...), established at a given point in order to be able to stop circulation temporarily, to be able to leave passage to the boats, trains or other vehicles, according to the nature of the way crossed by these bridges .
- the "flying bridges" which one can move at will...

- A viaduct is a structure sometimes considerable, composed of arches or spans many and raised, sometimes on several stages of vaults, and intended to cross great spaces, valleys, large ravines etc

-An aqueduct is a work of weak opening, which is used only in the passing of water.

  According to whether one considers them   from the point of view of the nature of the ways to which they give access, one divides them into:
Highway-bridges, passage of ways, roads and motorways...
Railway bridges, intended for the passages of superior, railroad or inferior according to whether the served way passes to the top or the lower part of the railway...
Bridges channels and aqueducts, when a work must give passage to derived or collected water...
- Because of the nature of the materials which constitute them, the bridges can be divided into:
Stone bridges and masonry
Wood bridges
Metal bridges
Concrete bridges

Bridges out of composite materials...
Lastly, relative with their form, the bridges are still called

"Oblique bridges
Arch bridges
Suspension bridges
Cable stayed  bridges
Beam bridges
mixed  etc.

 Amazing picture, showing three different bridges near Disentis- Switzerland .      (Postcard- phot. Decurtins, ed E.Seglio-Monn)

Shimanani sea side Highway Japan 1998

  My classification was carried out primarily according to the types of representations met on the stamps and philatelic documents found with the wire of my research. Consequently It borrows a  little from each one of these classifications, in a strict didactic preoccupation of clearness and  balance...

 References of the stamps:  The majority correspond to N° of the French catalogue Yvert and Tellier (Yt)
                                              but also with the American catalogue Scott (Sc)
                                              and also with the German catalogue
Michel (Michel)

Rebuilding of the Mostar Bridge  2004